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Location, location, location! This axiom of the real estate world is perhaps even more true in the natural world. Finding the right environmental conditions for deep-sea corals and sponges to survive and thrive is a rare occurrence in the deep ocean. Marine biologists have discovered deep-sea coral ecosystems throughout the oceans from the tropics to…

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The concept of a vulnerable marine ecosystem, commonly referred to by its acronym VME, in high seas marine conservation management is about a decade old. United Nations General Assembly resolution 61/105 called “upon States to take action immediately, individually and through regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements, and consistent with the precautionary approach and ecosystem…

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