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Deep-Sea Coral Expedition to California’s Channel Islands

Location, location, location! This axiom of the real estate world is perhaps even more true in the natural world. Finding the right environmental conditions for deep-sea corals and sponges to survive and thrive is a rare occurrence in the deep ocean. Marine biologists have discovered deep-sea coral ecosystems throughout the oceans from the tropics to…

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Seamounts ARE Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

The concept of a vulnerable marine ecosystem, commonly referred to by its acronym VME, in high seas marine conservation management is about a decade old. United Nations General Assembly resolution 61/105 called “upon States to take action immediately, individually and through regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements, and consistent with the precautionary approach and ecosystem…

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