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Our oceans are dotted with thousands of underwater mountains scattered beneath the waves that harbor an incredible diversity of marine life. Known as seamounts, these extraordinary places are highly productive oases in the sea, and are home to extremely fragile, long-lived, rare and sometimes endangered marine life. Some seamounts function like rest stops for migratory…

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The concept of a vulnerable marine ecosystem, commonly referred to by its acronym VME, in high seas marine conservation management is about a decade old. United Nations General Assembly resolution 61/105 called “upon States to take action immediately, individually and through regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements, and consistent with the precautionary approach and ecosystem…

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